Springboot如何使用Logback实现日志配置

本文讲解"Springboot怎么使用Logback实现日志配置",希望能够解决相关问题。

概述

默认情况下,SpringBoot内部使用logback作为系统日志实现的框架,将日志输出到控制台,不会写到日志文件。如果在application.properties或application.yml配置,这样只能配置简单的场景,保存路径、日志格式等。复杂的场景(区分 info 和 error 的日志、每天产生一个日志文件等)满足不了,只能自定义配置文件logback-spring.xml或者logback.xml。

logback配置详解

首先我们先了解下logback。

logback 主要分为三个模块:

  • logback-core:是其他两个模块的基础模块

  • logback-classic:是对 core 模块的扩展,相当于 log4j 的改良版。classic 模块实现了 Slf4j 的 API 因此可以便于和其他日志框架直接切换

  • logback-access:与Servlet容器集成,以提供http访问日志功能。

logback配置

1.application .properties

# 日志打印信息配置
logging.config=classpath:logback-spring.xml

2.logback-spring.xml

<?mybatis version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<configuration scan="true" scanPeriod="60 seconds" debug="false">
    <contextName>logback</contextName>
    <!--输出到控制台-->
    <appender name="console" class="ch.qos.logback.core.ConsoleAppender">
        <!-- <filter class="ch.qos.logback.classic.filter.ThresholdFilter">
             <level>ERROR</level>
         </filter>-->
        <encoder>
            <pattern>%d{HH:mm:ss.SSS} %contextName [%thread] %-5level %logger{36} - %msg%n</pattern>
        </encoder>
    </appender>
    <appender name="file" class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.RollingFileAppender"><!-- 日志文件会滚动 -->
        <!-- 文件路径 -->
        <file>./logs/gf_scanning.log</file><!-- 当前的日志文件存放路径 -->
        <!-- 日志滚动策略 -->
        <rollingPolicy class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.TimeBasedRollingPolicy">
            <!-- 历史日志文件的存放路径和名称 -->
            <fileNamePattern>./logs/gf_scanning.%d{yyyy-MM-dd}.%i.log</fileNamePattern>
            <!-- 日志文件最大的保存历史 数量-->
            <maxHistory>30</maxHistory>
            <timeBasedFileNamingAndTriggeringPolicy class="ch.qos.logback.core.rolling.SizeAndTimeBasedFNATP">
                <maxFileSize>10MB</maxFileSize>
            </timeBasedFileNamingAndTriggeringPolicy>
        </rollingPolicy>
        <encoder>
            <pattern>%d{HH:mm:ss.SSS} %contextName [%thread] %-5level %logger{36} - %msg%n</pattern> <!-- 日志文件中日志的格式 -->
        </encoder>
    </appender>
    <root level="info">
        <appender-ref ref="console"/>
        <appender-ref ref="file"/>
    </root>
</configuration>

异常情况

遇到个奇怪的问题,按上述配置完成logback的配置后,大多项目可以正常运行并保存日志到文件,但有一个项目启动时报错。java.lang.IllegalStateException: Could not initialize Logback logging from classpath:logback-spring.xml ... Caused by: ch.qos.logback.core.joran.spi.JoranException: Parser configuration error occurred

Logging system failed to initialize using configuration from 'classpath:logback-spring.xml'
java.lang.IllegalStateException: Could not initialize Logback logging from classpath:logback-spring.xml
    at org.springframework.boot.logging.logback.LogbackLoggingSystem.loadConfiguration(LogbackLoggingSystem.java:168)
    at org.springframework.boot.logging.AbstractLoggingSystem.initializeWithSpecificConfig(AbstractLoggingSystem.java:66)
    at org.springframework.boot.logging.AbstractLoggingSystem.initialize(AbstractLoggingSystem.java:57)
    at org.springframework.boot.logging.logback.LogbackLoggingSystem.initialize(LogbackLoggingSystem.java:132)
    at org.springframework.boot.context.logging.LoggingApplicationListener.initializeSystem(LoggingApplicationListener.java:316)
    at org.springframework.boot.context.logging.LoggingApplicationListener.initialize(LoggingApplicationListener.java:282)
    at org.springframework.boot.context.logging.LoggingApplicationListener.onApplicationEnvironmentPreparedEvent(LoggingApplicationListener.java:240)
    at org.springframework.boot.context.logging.LoggingApplicationListener.onApplicationEvent(LoggingApplicationListener.java:216)
    at org.springframework.context.event.SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster.doInvokeListener(SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster.java:176)
    at org.springframework.context.event.SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster.invokeListener(SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster.java:169)
    at org.springframework.context.event.SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster.multicastEvent(SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster.java:143)
    at org.springframework.context.event.SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster.multicastEvent(SimpleApplicationEventMulticaster.java:131)
    at org.springframework.boot.context.event.EventPublishingRunListener.environmentPrepared(EventPublishingRunListener.java:85)
    at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplicationRunListeners.lambda$environmentPrepared$2(SpringApplicationRunListeners.java:66)
    at java.util.ArrayList.forEach(ArrayList.java:1257)
    at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplicationRunListeners.doWithListeners(SpringApplicationRunListeners.java:120)
    at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplicationRunListeners.doWithListeners(SpringApplicationRunListeners.java:114)
    at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplicationRunListeners.environmentPrepared(SpringApplicationRunListeners.java:65)
    at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication.prepareEnvironment(SpringApplication.java:339)
    at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication.run(SpringApplication.java:297)
    at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication.run(SpringApplication.java:1312)
    at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication.run(SpringApplication.java:1301)
    at cn.piesat.ScanningApplication.main(ScanningApplication.java:18)
Caused by: ch.qos.logback.core.joran.spi.JoranException: Parser configuration error occurred
    at ch.qos.logback.core.joran.event.SaxEventRecorder.buildSaxParser(SaxEventRecorder.java:89)
    at ch.qos.logback.core.joran.event.SaxEventRecorder.recordEvents(SaxEventRecorder.java:57)
    at ch.qos.logback.core.joran.GenericConfigurator.doConfigure(GenericConfigurator.java:151)
    at ch.qos.logback.core.joran.GenericConfigurator.doConfigure(GenericConfigurator.java:110)
    at ch.qos.logback.core.joran.GenericConfigurator.doConfigure(GenericConfigurator.java:53)
    at org.springframework.boot.logging.logback.LogbackLoggingSystem.configureByResourceUrl(LogbackLoggingSystem.java:188)
    at org.springframework.boot.logging.logback.LogbackLoggingSystem.loadConfiguration(LogbackLoggingSystem.java:165)
    ... 22 more
Caused by: org.xml.sax.SAXNotSupportedException: Feature: http://xml.org/sax/features/external-general-entities
    at org.apache.crimson.parser.XMLReaderImpl.setFeature(XMLReaderImpl.java:211)
    at org.apache.crimson.jaxp.SAXParserImpl.setFeatures(SAXParserImpl.java:143)
    at org.apache.crimson.jaxp.SAXParserImpl.<init>(SAXParserImpl.java:126)
    at org.apache.crimson.jaxp.SAXParserFactoryImpl.newSAXParserImpl(SAXParserFactoryImpl.java:113)
    at org.apache.crimson.jaxp.SAXParserFactoryImpl.setFeature(SAXParserFactoryImpl.java:141)
    at ch.qos.logback.core.joran.event.SaxEventRecorder.buildSaxParser(SaxEventRecorder.java:82)
    ... 28 more
Disconnected from the target VM, address: '127.0.0.1:64222', transport: 'socket'

Process finished with exit code 1

可能是由于jar包冲突,在pom文件中单独引入logback-core的依赖后,问题解决。

<!-- logback 日志 -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>ch.qos.logback</groupId>
    <artifactId>logback-core</artifactId>
    <version>1.1.7</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>ch.qos.logback</groupId>
    <artifactId>logback-classic</artifactId>
    <version>1.1.7</version>
    <exclusions>
        <exclusion>
            <groupId>ch.qos.logback</groupId>
            <artifactId>logback-core</artifactId>
        </exclusion>
    </exclusions>
</dependency>

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